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This article covers replacing the high pressure fuel pump in a BMW E90 with the N55 turbocharged engine. Even though we used a 2011 335i to perform this repair, this article can be applied to any BMW vehicle with the N54/N55 turbocharged engine including the 1,3,5,7,X3,X5,X6,Z4 series with minor modifications to the repair steps.
If your twin turbo N54/N55 engine is hard to start, is experiencing cylinder misfires, idling rough, and(or) is in "limp mode", you may need a BMW high pressure fuel pump (HPFP) replacement.
It is well known that BMW has had issues with the direct injection system on its turbocharged 6 cylinder N54/N55 engines. These issues are directly related to failure of the high pressure fuel pump - or "injection exchange pump" - on popular models such as the 135i, 335i and 535i vehicles. For a complete list of BMW vehicles affected by premature failure of the high pressure fuel pump, please click the model box at the beginning of this article.
Causes for a BMW high pressure fuel pump failure are not always straightforward, although recent investigation has pointed towards poor engine oil service intervals or use of the incorrect engine oil (not BMW certified) as the likely culprits (see our article on choosing the correct engine oil for your vehicle). Since the pump is driven by the engine camshaft, improper lubrication can wreak havoc on its internal parts. Other causes for failure are fuel leakage and solenoid issues.
A BMW high pressure fuel pump replacement is a fairly straightforward repair with one caveat: the intake manifold must also be removed from the engine in order to access the fuel pump mounting bolts. Since the intake manifold must be removed, you should also replace your intake gaskets which are also prone to failure if reused. You should also replace the o-ring on your throttle body since it must be removed as well.
***Avoid purchasing "cheap" generic branded fuel pumps on sites like Amazon or eBay. We have dealt with multiple reports of these generic pumps failing with less than 1000 miles of driving on them. THESE PUMPS WILL FAIL. The BMW Repair Guide strongly recommends only installing a Genuine BMW pump for this repair.
Includes detailed part diagrams, part numbers and links to purchase all of the required components needed to complete this repair.
Before starting this repair, you must have the following required parts.
All N54 and N55 turbocharged engines
This is the same factory high pressure fuel pump installed at the BMW dealership. Fits all BMW vehicles with the N54/N55 turbocharged engine.
All N52, N54, and N55 engines
Intake gaskets go in between the head and the intake runners. We reccomend replacing these gaskets when doing removal and re-install of intake manifolds.
All BMW N54 and N55 engines
This is the same factory throttle body gasket that would be installed at the BMW dealership.
Fits all BMW vehicles
This sensor monitors the fuel pressure coming from the fuel pump to regulate how much fuel your engine is getting. It monitors for low fuel pressure to let you know if there are issues with your high pressure fuel pump.
The cabin filter housing is located at the back of the engine and must be removed to gain access to the intake manifold.
Remove the five 8mm screws anchoring the upper filter housing. Remove upper filter housing from vehicle.
Unsnap and remove the two side covers (both left and right) from the lower filter housing and remove from vehicle.
Remove the right and left electrical connections from the lower filter housing.
Use an 8mm nut driver to remove the two screws anchoring the lower filter housing to the vehicle. There is a screw on both the right and left side of the lower filter housing.
Remove the lower filter housing from the vehicle.
Section 2 - Removing the Air Intake and Throttle Body
Use a T20 torx bit (or phillips head screwdriver) to remove the two screws anchoring the intake duct to the front of vehicle.
Unsnap the intake duct from the air cleaner assembly and remove from the vehicle.
Use a flat blade screwdriver to remove the mass air flow (MAF) electrical connector from the front duct.
Loosen hose clamp connecting air cleaner assembly to front duct. Unclip the lid of the air cleaner assembly and remove. Remove air filter.
The lower air cleaner assembly simply unsnaps from the engine. Remove from engine bay.
Unsnap the locking ring that connects the turbo charge air tube to the throttle body with flat blade screwdriver. Loosen hose clamp and remove T30 torx bolt anchoring tube to engine. Remove the air charge tube from throttle body (a flat blade screwdriver helps remove a "stuck" air tube from throttle body-see below).
Remove electrical connector from charge air tube and remove tube from engine compartment.
Remove the electrical connection from the fuel tank vent (breather) valve. Remove the plastic vacuum hose from the bottom of the valve by squeezing the plastic ring and pulling off. Finally remove the two T25 screws anchoring the valve bracket to the engine and tuck away safely.
Remove the four 10mm throttle body bolts and pull loose from intake manifold. Push to side out of the way.
Grab the wiring harness and pull out and off of mounting bracket. Push out of the way.
Disconnect electrical connector from back of fuel pump.
Section 3 - Removing the Intake Manifold
The intake manifold does not have to be completely removed from the engine...it just needs to be removed from the cylinder head and stored out of the way so the high pressure fuel pump's fuel lines can be accessed and removed. In fact, we strongly recommend not removing any of the wiring harnesses connected at the bottom of the intake manifold during this repair. The pump is buried underneath the intake manifold...there is, unfortunately, no other way to access it.
Remove the electrical connection from the sensor located on rear of intake manifold (see images below). A metal pick helps in releasing the connection.
The vacuum line that runs from the cylinder head cover to the auxiliary vacuum pump must be removed. Use an E25 external torx socket to remove the bolt securing it to the pump housing and then pull out and clear of intake manifold.
Disconnect electrical connection from fuel rail pressure sensor. The pressure sensor is located at end of fuel rail near firewall of vehicle. ***The BMW Repair Guide recommends also replacing your pressure sensor when doing a BMW high pressure fuel pump replacement (please see our parts list to order the correct one).
Gather up all of the loose wiring on top of intake manifold and neatly bungee cord out of the way.
Remove the seven 11mm nuts anchoring the intake manifold to the engine block.
Remove intake manifold and bungee cord out of the way. ***Note - avoid removing the wiring harnesses on bottom of intake manifold if possible. You should be able to remove intake manifold and bungee cord to hood without removing them.
Section 4 - BMW High Pressure Fuel Pump Removal
The BMW high pressure fuel pump can now be easily accessed and removed. Remember that you will need a long reach 5mm hex socket to reach the fuel pump bolts...a regular hex wrench will not work. Please see our tool list if you need to order one now.
Using a 17mm open end wrench, loosen the nut attaching the rear fuel line to pump.
Remove the two wiring harness bracket bolts using an E10 torx socket. The wiring harness bracket also serves as the rear fuel line anchor to the engine block.
Pull rear fuel line loose from pump and tuck away safely.
Using a 17mm open end wrench, loosen the nut attaching the top fuel line to the pump.
Use a 17mm wrench to disconnect the top fuel line from fuel rail.
Use a 10mm socket to remove the bolt anchoring the top fuel line to the engine block. Remove fuel line from engine.
Use a 5mm long reach hex socket to remove the three bolts anchoring the fuel pump to the engine. ***You must use long reach hex sockets. You will not be able to remove the fuel pump mounting bolts with a small hex socket or hex wrench.
Remove old fuel pump from vehicle.
Section 5 - New BMW High Pressure Fuel Pump Installation
Reinstalling the new BMW high pressure fuel pump is simple...just be sure to install a new o-ring on pump (if it wasn't shipped with one) and new gaskets on the intake manifold and throttle body.
Verify the new fuel pump comes with a new o-ring before installing. If it did not come with a new o-ring, please see our parts list and order one now. ***DO NOT install new pump with old o-ring.
Make sure the auxiliary vacuum pump (where fuel pump mounts to) is clean so there is a tight unobstructed fit with fuel pump o-ring.
Install the new BMW high pressure fuel pump. Torque fuel pump mounting bolts to 14 Nm (10 ft-lb).
Reinstall fuel lines in the following sequence: Top fuel line - a) Hand tighten to top of pump, hand tighten to fuel rail, LOOSELY install bolt in fuel line mount (just a couple turns), b) Final tighten to top of pump, then final tighten to fuel rail, c) Final tighten fuel line mount to engine block. Rear fuel line - a) Final tighten to back of pump. b) Reinstall wiring harness mounting bracket and tighten bolts.
Reinstall intake manifold following above steps in reverse. Make sure to install new intake manifold gaskets. The old gaskets could leak if reused. Make sure to thoroughly clean the engine head with a rag before reinstalling the intake manifold (see images below). Torque the intake manifold nuts to 15 Nm (11 ft-lb).
Reinstall the throttle body following above steps in reverse. Make sure to install a new throttle body o-ring when reassembling. The old o-ring could leak if reused. Torque throttle body mounting bolts to 8 Nm (70 in-lb) (6 ft-lb).
Optional step - install new high pressure fuel rail pressure sensor. Use an adjustable wrench to remove old sensor from fuel rail. Install new sensor and tighten (do not over tighten...just make snug).
Reinstall the air intake assembly.
Reinstall the cabin filter housing.
Start car and test system. It will take the engine a few cranks to get the fuel into the cylinders so vehicle can start.
Part # 13-51-8-511-825 - This high-pressure pump is used for your direct-injected vehicle. They will usually fail when the camshaft follower wears through and destroys the pump shaft or they can't put out the proper pressure after it has aged. Fits: BMW E70 X5 xDrive35d M57 3.0L, BMW E90 335d M57 3.0L
Part # 16-11-2-283-497 - A clogged fuel filter makes it difficult for your engine to get all the fueling it needs. Filters commonly clog from a deteriorating gas tank, bad fuel, or other debris in the fuel system. A fresh fuel filter addresses many fuel related problems including surging, stalling, cold start issues, and poor performance under a variety of conditions. Fits: BMW E90 M3, BMW E92 M3, BMW E93 M3
Part # 16-11-2-283-495 - A clogged fuel filter makes it difficult for your engine to get all the fueling it needs. Filters commonly clog from a deteriorating gas tank, bad fuel, or other debris in the fuel system. A fresh fuel filter addresses many fuel related problems including surging, stalling, cold start issues, and poor performance under a variety of conditions. Fits: BMW E90 M3, BMW E92 M3, BMW E93 M3
The fuel pump in your vehicle is essential for delivering the proper amount of fuel at the correct pressure. Usually, they fail unexpectedly and at the worst possible time. Luckily, ECS Tuning carries a full line of replacement fuel pumps to get your vehicle back on the road again. This fuel pump installs easily in the place of your broken or worn pump. All wiring connections are the same to make this an easy plug and play installation. Don't take a chance on an inferior fuel pump from the local auto store that may leave you stranded again. Choose a quality unit to ensure thousands of worry free miles. Fits: BMW E82 128i, BMW E88 128i, BMW E90 328i, BMW E90 328xi, BMW E92 328i, BMW E92 328xi, BMW E93 328i, BMW E93 328Ci
This is a complete plug and play solution to replace your stock Low-Pressure Fuel Pump (LPFP) with a new E85 certified bucketless assembly. This solution provides up to 25% more flow than our standard Stage 2 LPFP upgrade and up to 150% more flow than the stock pump. This pump will support up to 550whp running 85% ethanol and 600whp running 50% ethanol. The Stage 2 bucketless kit includes the following: A custom anodized billet fitting for the pump output and stock fuel line connection. Our custom billet aluminum anodized bracket for the pump and float assembly Two cotter pins to secure your float assembly A new E85 compatible Walbro 450 pump Spare vent tube clip A new Walbro filter If you still need more flow, the Stage 3 upgrade is also available and can be added to your Stage 2 bucketless pump. The Stage 3 upgrade kit includes: A complete plug and play solution by simply adding the secondary module Our custom billet aluminum fitting to run both pumps in parallel A new E85 compatible Walbro 450 pump Wiring harness for the secondary pump Spare vent tube clip A new Walbro filter Recommended accessories: Lock Ring Removal Tool Hobb's switch NOTE: These kits include a basic filter assembly. When using this filter, running the vehicle under low fuel conditions can cause fuel starvation issues. If you do hard straight line accelerations when you have less than 1/8 tank of fuel, we would recommend running our standard Stage 2, 3, or Stage 4 pump. In addition, if you intend to use this for road course applications, you may see starvation issues when running less than a half tank and doing long high G right turns. Again for those applications we'd recommend one of our standard pump applications. Fits: BMW E82 N54 3.0L, BMW E82 N55 3.0L, BMW E88 N54 3.0L, BMW E88 N55 3.0L, BMW E90 N54 3.0L, BMW E90 N55 3.0L, BMW E92 N54 3.0L, BMW E92 N55 3.0L, BMW E93 N54 3.0L, BMW E93 N55 3.0L, BMW E84 N55 3.0L
Part # 16-14-7-194-207 - The fuel pump in your vehicle is essential for delivering the proper amount of fuel at the correct pressure. Usually, they fail unexpectedly and at the worst possible time. Luckily, ECS Tuning carries a full line of replacement fuel pumps to get your vehicle back on the road again. This fuel pump installs easily in the place of your broken or worn pump. All wiring connections are the same to make this an easy plug and play installation. Don't take a chance on an inferior fuel pump from the local auto store that may leave you stranded again. Choose a quality unit to ensure thousands of worry free miles. This Genuine BMW unit is an OEM replacement and is designed to fit just like factory. Pressure, gallons per hour, and size are the same to offer stock performance in your vehicle. This is a replacement fuel pump complete with the plastic housing. Includes O-Ring but does not include sending unit. For N51 SULEV engines only Fits: BMW E82 128i, BMW E88 128i, BMW E90 328i, BMW E90 328xi, BMW E92 328i, BMW E92 328xi, BMW E93 328i, BMW E93 328Ci
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The Repair Cost graphically displays approximately how expensive the repair will be to perform. The repair cost is defined as the actual money that would need to be spent to purchase required parts and special tools that would not be normally found in the home mechanics garage. Please note that these cost estimates are approximate and can fluctuate based on brand preferences and manufacturer.